GEOLOGY mains syllabus


                                                               PAPER - I

1. General Geology:

The Solar System, Meteorites, Origin and interior of the earth and age of earth; Volcanoes- causes and products, Volcanic belts; Earthquakes-causes, effects, Seismic zones of India; Island arcs, trenches and midocean ridges; Continental drifts; Seafloor spreading, Plate tectonics; Isostasy.

2. Geomorphology and Remote Sensing:

  • Basic concepts of geomorphology; Weathering and soil formations; Landforms, slopes and drainage;Geomorphic cycles and their interpretation; Morphology and its relation to structures and lithology; Coastal geomorphology; Applications of geomorphology in mineral prospecting, civil engineering; Hydrology and environmental studies; Geomorphology of Indian subcontinent.
  • Aerial photographs and their interpretation-merits and limitations; The Electromagnetic spectrum; Orbiting satellites and sensor systems; Indian Remote Sensing Satellites; Satellites data products; Applications of remote sensing in geology; The Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS)– its applications.

3. Structural Geology

 Principles of geologic mapping and map reading, Projection diagrams, Stress and strain ellipsoid and stress-strain relationships of elastic, plastic and viscous materials; Strain markers in deformed rocks; Behaviour of minerals and rocks under deformation conditions; Folds and faults classification and mechanics; Structural analysis of folds, foliations, lineations, joints and faults, unconformities;Timerelationship between crystallization and deformation.

4. Paleontology:

Species- definition and nomenclature; Megafossils and Microfossils; Modes of preservation of fossils;Different kinds of microfossils; Application of microfossils in correlation, petroleum exploration, paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic studies; Evolutionary trend in Hominidae, Equidae and Proboscidae; Siwalik fauna;Gondwana flora and fauna and its importance; Index fossils and their significance.

5. Indian Stratigraphy:

Classification of stratigraphic sequences: lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, chronostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic and their interrelationships; Distribution and classification of Precambrian rocks of India;Study of stratigraphic distribution and lithology of Phanerozoic rocks of India with reference to fauna, flora and economic importance; Major boundary problemsCambrian/Precambrian, Permian/Triassic,Cretaceous/Tertiary and Pliocene/Pleistocene; Study of climatic conditions, paleogeography and igneous activity in the Indian subcontinent in the geological past; Tectonic framework of India; Evolution of the Himalayas.

6. Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology:

Hydrologic cycle and genetic classification of water; Movement of subsurface water; Springs; Porosity,permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity and storage coefficient, classification of aquifers; Waterbearing characteristics of rocks; Groundwater chemistry; Salt water intrusion; Types of wells; Drainage basin morphometry; Exploration for groundwater; Ground-water recharge; Problems and management of groundwater; Rainwater harvesting; Engineering properties of rocks; Geological investigations for dams, tunnels highways, railway and bridges; Rock as construction material; Landslides-causes, prevention and rehabilitation; Earthquake-resistant structures.                                                                                                                                                      

                                                                 PAPER - II

1. Mineralogy:

  • Classification of crystals into systems and classes of symmetry; International system of crystallographic notation; Use of projection diagrams to represent crystal symmetry; Elements of X-ray crystallography.
  • Physical and chemical characters of rock forming silicate mineral groups; Structural classification of silicates;Common minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks; Minerals of the carbonate, phosphate, sulphide and halide groups; Clay minerals.
  • Optical properties of common rock forming minerals; Pleochroism, extinction angle, double refraction,birefringence, twinning and dispersion in minerals.

2. Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology:

  • Generation and crystallization of magmas; Crystallization of albite-anorthite, diopside-anorthite and diopsidewollastonite-silica systems; Bowen’s Reaction Principle; Magmatic differentation and assimilation;Petrogenetic significance of the textures and structures of igneous rocks; Petrography and petrogenesis of granite, syenite, diorite, basic and ultrabasic groups, charnockite, anorthosite and alkaline rocks; Carbonatites;Deccan volcanic province.
  • Types and agents of metamorphism; Metamorphic grades and zones; Phase rule; Facies of regional and contactmetamorphism; ACF and AKF diagrams; Textures and structures of metamorphic rocks; Metamorphism of arenaceous, argillaceous and basic rocks; Minerals assemblages Retrograde metamorphism; Metasomatism and granitisation, migmatites, Granulite terrains of India.

3. Sedimentary Petrology:

Sediments and Sedimentary rocks: Processes of formation; digenesis and lithification; Clastic and non-clastic rocks-their classification, petrography and depositional environment; Sedimentary facies and provenance;Sedimentary structures and their significance; Heavy minerals and their significance; Sedimentary basins of India.

4. Economic Geology:

Ore, ore minerals and gangue, tenor of ore, classification of ore deposits; Process of formation of minerals deposits; Controls of ore localization; Ore textures and structures; Metallogenic epochs and provinces;Geology of the important Indian deposits of aluminium, chromium, copper, gold, iron, lead zinc, manganese,titanium, uranium and thorium and industrial minerals; Deposits of coal and petroleum in India; National Mineral Policy; Conservation and utilization of mineral resources; Marine mineral resources and Law of Sea.

5. Mining Geology:

Methods of prospecting-geological, geophysical, geochemical and geobotanical; Techniques of sampling;Estimation of reserves or ore; Methods of exploration and mining metallic ores, industrial minerals, marine mineral resources and building stones; Mineral beneficiation and ore dressing.

6. Geochemistry and Environmental Geology:

  • Cosmic abundance of elements; Composition of the planets and meteorites; Structure and composition of Earth and distribution of elements; Trace elements; Elements of crystal chemistry-types of chemical bonds,coordination number; Isomorphism and polymorphism; Elementary thermodynamics.
  • Natural hazards-floods, mass wasting, costal hazards, earthquakes and volcanic activity and mitigation;Environmental impact of urbanization, mining, industrial and radioactive waste disposal, use of fertilizers,dumping of mine waste and fly ash; Pollution of ground and surface water, marine pollution; Environment protection legislative measures in India; Sea level changes: causes and impact.                                                                                                                                  


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