Iraq officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia
Iraq borders Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest, and Syria to the west.
|1534 - 1918|
Region is part of the Ottoman Empire
|1914 - 1918|
World War I.
Britain seizes Baghdad.
|1920||Britain creates state of Iraq with League of Nations approval|
Great Iraqi Revolution - rebellion against British rule.
Faysal, son of Hussein Bin Ali, the Sharif of Mecca, is crowned Iraq's first king.
Iraq becomes an independent state.
|1939-1945||World War II. Britain re-occupies Iraq.|
The monarchy is overthrown in a military coup led by Brig Abd-al-Karim Qasim and Col Abd-al-Salam Muhammad Arif. Iraq is declared a republic.
Prime Minister Qasim is ousted in a coup led by the Arab Socialist Baath Party (ASBP). Arif becomes president.
The Baathist government is overthrown by Arif and a group of officers.
After Arif is killed in a helicopter crash on 13 April, his elder brother, Maj-Gen Abd-al-Rahman Muhammad Arif, succeeds him as president.
A Baathist led-coup ousts Arif. Revolution Command Council (RCC) takes charge with Gen Ahmad Hasan al-Bakr as chairman and country's president.
|1972||Iraq nationalises the Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC).|
|1974||Iraq grants limited autonomy to Kurdish region.|
Saddam Hussein succeeds Al-Bakr as president.
The pro-Iranian Dawah Party claims responsibility for an attack on Deputy Prime Minister, Tariq Aziz, at Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad.
Israel attacks an Iraqi nuclear research centre at Tuwaythah near Baghdad.
Iraq attacks Kurdish town of Halabjah with poison gas, killing thousands.
- Farzad Bazoft, an Iranian-born journalist with London's Observer newspaper, accused of spying on a military installation, is hanged in Baghdad.
Iraq invades Kuwait, prompting what becomes known as the first Gulf War. A massive US-led military campaign forces Iraq to withdraw in February 1991.
Iraq subjected to weapons inspection programme.
|1991 Mid-March/early April|
Southern Shia and northern Kurdish populations - encouraged by Iraq's defeat in Kuwait - rebel, prompting a brutal crackdown.
UN-approved safe-haven established in northern Iraq to protect the Kurds. Iraq ordered to end all military activity in the area.
A no-fly zone, which Iraqi planes are not allowed to enter, is set up in southern Iraq, south of latitude 32 degrees north.
US forces launch a cruise missile attack on Iraqi intelligence headquarters in Baghdad in retaliation for the attempted assassination of US President George Bush in Kuwait in April.
UNSC Resolution 986 allows the partial resumption of Iraq's oil exports to buy food and medicine (the "oil-for-food programme").
Saddam Hussein wins a referendum allowing him to remain president for another seven years.
After call for aid from KDP, Iraqi forces launch offensive into northern no-fly zone and capture Irbil.
US extends northern limit of southern no-fly zone to latitude 33 degrees north, just south of Baghdad.
Iraq ends cooperation with UN Special Commission to Oversee the Destruction of Iraq's Weapons of Mass Destruction (Unscom).
After UN staff are evacuated from Baghdad, the US and UK launch a bombing campaign, "Operation Desert Fox", to destroy Iraq's nuclear, chemical and biological weapons programmes.
Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Muhammad Sadiq al-Sadr, spiritual leader of the Shia community, is assassinated in Najaf.
UNSC Resolution 1284 creates the UN Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (Unmovic) to replace Unscom. Iraq rejects the resolution.
Britain, US carry out bombing raids to try to disable Iraq's air defence network. The bombings have little international support.
US President George W Bush tells sceptical world leaders at a UN General to confront the "grave and gathering danger" of Iraq - or stand aside as the US acts. In the same month British Prime Minister Tony Blair publishes a ''dodgy'' dossier on Iraq's military capability.
UN weapons inspectors return to Iraq backed by a UN resolution which threatens serious consequences if Iraq is in "material breach" of its terms.
Chief weapons inspector Hans Blix reports that Iraq has accelerated its cooperation but says inspectors need more time to verify Iraq's compliance.
UK's ambassador to the UN says the diplomatic process on Iraq has ended; arms inspectors evacuate; US President George W Bush gives Saddam Hussein and his sons 48 hours to leave Iraq or face war.
US-led invasion topples Saddam Hussein's government, marks start of years of violent conflict with different groups competing for power.
2003 July - US-appointed Governing Council meets for first time. Commander of US forces says his troops face low-intensity guerrilla-style war.
Saddam's sons Uday and Qusay killed in gun battle in Mosul.
Suicide truck bomb wrecks UN headquarters in Baghdad, killing UN envoy Sergio Vieira de Mello.
Car bomb in Najaf kills 125 including Shia leader Ayatollah Mohammed Baqr al-Hakim.
|2003 14 December|
Saddam Hussein captured in Tikrit.
|2004 March||Suicide bombers attack Shia festival-goers in Karbala and Baghdad, killing 140 people.|
Shia militias loyal to radical cleric Moqtada Sadr take on coalition forces.
Hundreds are reported killed in fighting during the month-long US military siege of the Sunni Muslim city of Falluja.
Photographic evidence emerges of abuse of Iraqi prisoners by US troops.
US hands sovereignty to interim government headed by Prime Minister Iyad Allawi.
Fighting in Najaf between US forces and Shia militia of radical cleric Moqtada Sadr.
Major US-led offensive against insurgents in Falluja.
|2005 30 January||Some 8 million vote in elections for a Transitional National Assembly. 2005 28 February - At least 114 people are killed by a car bomb in Hilla,south of Baghdad, in the worst single such incident since the US-led invasion|
Amid escalating violence, parliament selects Kurdish leader Jalal Talabani as president. Ibrahim Jaafari, a Shia, is named as prime minister.
|2005 May onwards|
Surge in car bombings, bomb explosions and shootings: Iraqi ministries put the civilian death toll for May at 672, up from 364 in April.
Massoud Barzani is sworn in as regional president of Iraqi Kurdistan.
Draft constitution is endorsed by Shia and Kurdish negotiators, but not by Sunni representatives.
Voters approve a new constitution, which aims to create an Islamic federal democracy.
Iraqis vote for the first, full-term government and parliament since the US-led invasion.
|2006 February onwards||A bomb attack on an important Shia shrine in Samarra unleashes a wave of sectarian violence in which hundreds of people are killed.|
|2006 22 April|
Newly re-elected President Talabani asks Shia compromise candidate Nouri al-Maliki to form a new government, ending months of deadlock.
|2006 May and June|
An average of more than 100 civilians per day are killed in violence in Iraq, the UN says.
|2006 7 June|
Al-Qaeda leader in Iraq, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, is killed in an air strike.
Iraq and Syria restore diplomatic relations after nearly a quarter century.
More than 200 die in car bombings in the mostly Shia area of Sadr City in Baghdad, in the worst attack on the capital since the US-led invasion of 2003.
Iraq Study Group report making recommendations to President Bush on future policy in Iraq describes the situation as grave and deteriorating.
Saddam Hussein is executed for crimes against humanity.
US President Bush announces a new Iraq strategy; thousands more US troops will be dispatched to shore up security in Baghdad.
UN says more than 34,000 civilians were killed in violence during 2006; the figure surpasses official Iraqi estimates threefold.
A bomb in Baghdad's Sadriya market kills more than 130 people. It is the worst single bombing since 2003.
Insurgents detonate three trucks with toxic chlorine gas in Falluja and Ramadi, injuring hundreds.
|2007 April||Bombings in Baghdad kill nearly 200 people in the worst day of violence since a US-led security drive began in the capital in February.|
Truck and car bombs hit two villages of Yazidi Kurds, killing at least 250 people - the deadliest attack since 2003.
Kurdish and Shia leaders form an alliance to support Prime Minister Maliki's government but fail to bring in Sunni leaders.
Controversy over private security contractors after Blackwater security guards allegedly fire at civilians in Baghdad, killing 17.
The number of violent civilian and military deaths continues to drop, as does the frequency of rocket attacks.
Britain hands over security of Basra province to Iraqi forces, effectively marking the end of nearly five years of British control of southern Iraq.
Parliament passes legislation allowing former officials from Saddam Hussein's Baath party to return to public life.
Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad visits.
Prime Minister Maliki orders crackdown on militia in Basra, sparking pitched battles with Moqtada Sadr's Mehdi Army. Hundreds are killed.
US forces hand over control of the western province of Anbar - once an insurgent and Al-Qaeda stronghold - to the Iraqi government.
It is the firstSunni province to be returned to to the Shia-led government.
Iraqi parliament passes provincial elections law. Issue of contested city of Kirkuk is set aside so elections can go ahead elsewhere.
Parliament approves a security pact with the United States under which all US troops are due to leave the country by the end of 2011.
|2009 January||Iraq takes control of security in Baghdad's fortified Green Zone and assumes more powers over foreign troops based in the country. PM Nouri al-Maliki welcomes the move as Iraq's "day of sovereignty".|
|2009 March||US President Barack Obama announces withdrawal of most US troops by end of August 2010. Up to 50,000 of 142,000 troops now there will stay on into 2011 to advise Iraqi forces and protect US interests, leaving by end of 2011.|
US troops withdraw from towns and cities in Iraq, six years after the invasion, having formally handed over security duties to new Iraqi forces.
New opposition forces make strong gains in elections to the regional parliament of Kurdistan, but the governing KDP and PUK alliance retains a reduced
majority. Masoud Barzani (KDP) is re-elected in the presidential election.
Two car bombs near the Green Zone in Baghdad kill at least 155 people, in Iraq's deadliest attack since April 2007.
The al-Qaeda-linked Islamic State of Iraq claims responsibility for suicide bombings in Baghdad that kill at least 127 people, as well as attacks in
August and October that killed 240 people.
Tension flares with Tehran as Iranian troops briefly occupy an oilfield in Iraqi territory.
Controversy as candidates with alleged links to Baath Party are banned from March parliamentary polls. A court later lifts the ban, prompting a delay in campaigning.
"Chemical" Ali Hassan al-Majid, a key figure in Saddam Hussein's government, is executed.
Parliamentary elections. Nine months pass before a new government is approved.
Seven years after the US-led invasion, the last US combat brigade leaves Iraq.
Syria and Iraq restore diplomatic ties a year after breaking them off.
Church in Baghdad seized by militants. 52 people killed in what is described as worst single disaster to hit Iraq's Christians in modern times.
Parliament reconvenes after long delay, re-appoints Jalal Talabani as president and Nouri al-Maliki as prime minister. A new government includes all major factions.
Radical Shia cleric Moqtada Sadr returns after four years of self-imposed exile in Iran.
Oil exports from Iraqi Kurdistan resume, amid a lengthy dispute between the region and the central government over contracts with foreign firms.
Army raids camp of Iranian exiles, killing 34. Government says it will shut Camp Ashraf, home to thousands of members of the People's Mujahedeen of Iran.
Violence escalates, with more than 40 apparently co-ordinated nationwide attacks in one day.
US completes troop pull-out.
Unity government faces disarray. Arrest warrant issued for vice-president Tariq al-Hashemi, a leading Sunni politician. Sunni bloc boycotts parliament and cabinet.
|2012||Bomb and gun attacks target Shia areas throughout the year, sparking fears of a new sectarian conflict. Nearly 200 people are killed in January, more than 160 in June, 113 in a single day in July, more than 70 people in August, about 62 in attacks nationwide in September, and at least 35 before and during the Shia mourning|
month of Muharram in November.
Nearly 200 people are killed in bombings targeting Shia Muslims in the immediate wake of the US withdrawal.
Tight security for Arab League summit in Baghdad. It is the first major summit to be held in Iraq since the fall of Saddam Hussein. A wave of pre-summit attacks kills scores of people.
Oil exports from Iraqi Kurdistan halted amid row with central government over contracts with foreign firms.
Coffin at the scene of a bombing in Baghdad
Sectarian violence picked up again 2013 after having declined following a peak in 2007
Fugitive Vice-President Tariq al-Hashemi is sentenced to be hanged for murder. He sought refuge in Turkey after being accused of running death squads.
Iraq cancels a $4.2bn deal to buy arms from Russia because of concerns about alleged corruption within the Iraqi government. The purchase, signed in
October, would have made Russia the country's second-largest arms supplier after the US. Moscow was the main arms supplier of to Saddam Hussein.
President Jalal Talabani suffers a stroke. He undergoes treatment in Germany and makes progress through the winter and spring.
Sunni Muslims stage mass rallies across the country over several months, protesting against what they see as marginalisation by the Shia-led government.
Syrian refugees try to cross into northern Iraq
Thousands of Syrians have fled to neighbouring countries, including Iraq, to escape civil war at home
Troops storm a Sunni anti-government protest camp in Hawija near Kirkuk, leaving more than 50 dead and prompting outrage and clashes in other towns.
Insurgency intensifies, with levels of violence matching those of 2008. By July the country is described as being in a full-blown sectarian war zone once again.
At least 500 prisoners, mainly senior al-Qaeda members, escape from Taji and Abu Ghraib jails in a mass breakout.
Mass killing at Camp Ashraf housing Iranian exiles - members of the People's Mujahedeen Organisation of Iran.
Regional parliamentary elections in Iraqi Kurdistan, won comfortably by Kurdistan Democratic Party.
Series of bombings hits Kurdistan capital Irbil in the first such attack since 2007. Al-Qaeda-affiliated Islamic State of Iraq says it was responding to alleged Iraqi
Kurdish support for Kurds fighting jihadists in Syria.
Parliamentary elections set for April 2014.
Government says October is deadliest month since April 2008, with 900 killed. By the year-end the UN estimates the 2013 death toll of civilians as 7,157 - a dramatic
increase in the previous year's figure of 3,238.
At least 35 people killed in twin bombing of Baghdad churches on Christmas Day.
Pro-al-Qaeda fighters infiltrate Fallujah and Ramadi after months of mounting violence in mainly-Sunni Anbar province. Government forces recapture
Ramadi but face entrenched rebels in Fallujah.
The electoral commission board tenders resignation in protest at what it says is political interference ahead of parliamentary elections, amid allegations
opposition candidates are being barred using a controversial legal clause.
Iraqis vote in first parliamentary election since 2011 withdrawal of US troops.
Sunni insurgents expand their territory by seizing Iraq's second city of Mosul and other smaller towns. Thousands flee amid reports of atrocities by the rebel Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). US says it may intervene.