Globe-Latitudes and Longitudes

                Globe-Latitudes and Longitudes

Shape of the earth-It’s not sphere.
It is slightly flattened at the North Pole and South Poles and bulge in the middle.

Globe-what is Globe ?

  • Globe is a true model or miniature form of the earth.
It is of different size and type-Big, pocket globes, globes like balloons.
  • Countries, continents and oceans are correctly shown in their correct size on the globe
  • It can be rotated

Earth moves from west to east

Equator-what is equator ?
  • Equator is an imaginary line on the Globe which divide globe into equal parts, Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere.
  • Equator is circular and important reference point .
  • Equator represents Zero degree latitudes.

Parallels of latitudes-All parallel circles from the equator upto the poles north poles and south poles are called parallel of latitudes.

Some important Parallels of Latitudes
Latitudes and Longitudes

Equator is at -0 degree latitude

North Pole is at -90 North degree latitudes

South Pole is at-90 degree south latitudes

Four major parallels of latitudes with latitudinal value
latitude and heat zones of the earth

Tropic of cancer-  23.5° north of the equator(Northern hemisphere)

Tropic of Capricorn 23.5°south of the equator (southern hemisphere)

Arctic Circle- 66.5° North of the equator (Northern Hemisphere)

Antarctic Circle- 66.5° south of the equator (southern Hemisphere)

Heat  zones of the Earth

what is heat zones ?
There are three different zones in earth arises due to the temperature difference these are called Heat zones of the earth.

  • These are Torrid Zones, Temperate zones and Frigid Zones. 
  • These heat zones are further divided into north torrid zone, south torrid zone, north temperate zone ,south temperate zone, north frigid zone, south frigid zone.
Heat zones of the earth

Torrid zone-The Hottest Heat Zone
  • Torrid Zone- zone receives the maximum heat because mid-day sun is exactly overhead on all the latitudes once in year.
  • Torrid Zone lies between Tropic cancer and Tropic of Capricorn.
  • North torrid zone-Lies between equator and tropic of cancer.
  • South torrid zone-lies between equator and tropic of capricorn

Temperate Zone-moderate temperature .
  • Temperate zones have moderate temperature .
  • North temperate zone-  North Temperate zone lies between tropic of cancer and Arctic circle.
  • South temperate zone South Temperate zone lies between tropic of Capricorn and Antarctic circle.
  • This zone is suitable for the human population to grow.

Frigid zones- The Coldest Heat Zone
  • Frigid zone  permanently frozen zone among the three zones.
  • This zone is very cold because here the sun does not rise much above the horizon,suns rays are always slanting and provide less heat.
  • It lies to north and south Arctic Circle (66.5º) and Antarctic Circle (66.5º) respectively.
  • North frigid Zone-Lies between Arctic Circle and North pole.
  • South Frigid Zone-Lies between Antarctic Circle and south Pole.

Longitude –It is imaginary line drawn from North Pole to South’s reference point.

Meridians of Longitude-It’s a reference point running from North Pole to South pole.
  • Distance between Meridians of longitudes are measured in degrees of longitudes.
  • Meridians of longitude are semicircles and distance between them decreases towards polewards
  • All meridians are of equal length.

Prime Meridians
Prime meridian

  • Prime meridians divide the earth into two equal parts eastern hemisphere and western hemisphere.
  • Prime Meridians have 0 degree longitude .
  • Prime meridian passes from Greenwich (England).
  • 180 degree eastern hemisphere longitude and 180 degree western hemisphere longitude  lies on the same line.

Longitude and Time

Earth rotates from west to east, those places east of Greenwich will be ahead of Greenwich time and those to the west will be behind it.

Example-If it is 12 o’clock in Greenwich then the time of places east of Greenwich will be more than 12 o’clock and west of Greenwich will be less than 12 o’clock.

Earth rotates 360 degree in 24 hours
Earth rotates 15 degree in 1hours
Earth rotates 1 degree in 4 minutes.

Thus if any place located 15 degree  east of Greenwich then it’s time will be one hour ahead of Greenwich.

All the places on a given meridians of longitude have the same local time.

Standard Time.

  • The local time of places which are on different meridians are bound to differ.
  • Therefore it is necessary to adopt the local time of some central meridian of a country as the standard time for the country.
  • Indian Standard Time (IST)  is 82 degree 30 east.
world time zones

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