Friday, 6 March 2015


                                      ECOLOGY-ECOSYSTEM

                          what is Ecosystem ?

Ecosystem-An ecosystem is a functional unit of nature consisting of biotic and abiotic factors, where the living organisms interact among themselves and also with their physical environment (abiotic factors).

                         what is Stratification ?

Stratification –Stratification in an ecosystem refers to the vertical distribution of different species occupying different levels.
CLASSIFICATION OF ECOSYSTEM
CLASSIFICATION OF ECOSYSTEM

Productivity-The rate of production of biomass, is called productivity.

            What is primary productivity ?

Primary productivity –Primary productivity is defined as the amount of biomass or organic matter produced per unit area over a time period by the plants during photosynthesis.

          What is secondary productivity ?

Secondary Productivity-Secondary productivity is defined as the rate of assimilation and formation of new organic matter by consumers.

ENERGY PYRAMID
                       What is decomposition ?

Decomposition-Decomposition is defined as the process in which the complex organic matter is broken down into simpler organic substances and ultimately into inorganic compounds.

                             what is Detritus ?

Detritus-The dead remains of plants and animals and also the faecal matter, constitute detritus.


Detritivorous-Detritivores are those organisms which feed on the detritus and break it down into smaller particles.

Food chain-Food chain refers to the transfer of energy (food )from the producer through a series of organisms.

Trophic level-Every steps or level in a food chain, is called a food web.

Consumers-All organisms/animals which depend directly or indirectly on plants for their food, are called consumers.
FOOD CHAIN

Herbivores-Herbivores are the primary consumers, which depend only on plants for their food needs.

Primary carnivores-These are the secondary consumers,which depend on the herbivores(primary consumers)for their food needs.

Secondary carnivores-These are the tertiary consumers,which depend on the primary carnivores(secondary consumers)for their food needs.

Biomass-The amount of living/organic matter present in an organism/a trophic level/an ecosystem,is known as biomass.

Standing crop-The amount of living matter (biomass)present at every trophic level,is known as standing crop.

Ecological Pyramids-The graphic representation of the trophic structure(organism in various trophic levels)of food chain, is called ecological pyramid.

Ecological succession-Ecological succession is community controlled phenomenon on which the structure and composition of communities change in an orderly and sequential manner, leading ultimately to the establishment of a climax community.

Sere-The entire sequence of communities that successively change in a given area resulting in a climax community, is called sere.

Pioneer species-The species which invade bare area and initiate the ecological succession,are called pioneer species.

Standing state-The amount of nutrients such as nitrogen,phosphorus,calcium etc,present in the soil,at any given time is called as standing state.

Biogeochemical Cylcle/Nutrient cycle-The continuous exchange of nutrients/elements among organisms and between organisms and their physical environment, is called Biogeochemical cycle.

Ecosystem services-The products of ecosystem processes are termed as ecosystem services.



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