HUMAN HEALTH AND DISEASE
GENERAL SCIENCE NOTES FOR IAS
Health is defined as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being.
Disease is the condition when the functioning of one or more organs or system of the body are adversely affected and characterized by various symptoms.
Pathogens are those organisms which cause diseases.
Vectors are those organisms which cause diseases.
The time period between infection and the appearance of symptoms, is called incubation period.
Immunity refers to the overall ability of living body to fight against diseases.
Interferons are the glycoproteins produced by our body cells in response to a viral infection.
Antigens are large and complex foreign molecules that activate the specific immune system to generate antibodies.
Antibodies are the protein molecules produced in response to antigens.
Vaccination is the process of introducing a preparation of antigenic proteins of pathogens or killed or inactivated/attenuated pathogens into the body, to generate the immune response/antibody.
Allergy refers to the exaggerated/hypersensitive response of the immune system to certain antigens in the environment.
Cancer refers to the uncontrolled proliferation of cells, that result from the breakdown of regulatory mechanisms which govern the normal cell behavior.
Metastasis is the phenomenon in which cancer cells spread to different sites through the body fluids and develop secondary tumours.
Retroviruses are those viruses which have RNA as the genetic material but can synthesise DNA on RNA-template by reverse transcription.
When a drug are taken for a purpose other than their normal clinical use and in amounts/concentration or frequency that impair one’s physical,physiological and physiological functions,it constitutes drug abuse.
Adolescence refers to the period and process of rapid growth and physical and mental development (attitudes and beliefs)from childhood to adulthood.
Addiction refers to the physical and Physiological attachment/dependence to certain effects of drugs/alcohol.
Syndrome refers to a group of symptoms.
Withdrawal syndrome refers to the characteristics unpleasant symptoms manifested by the body of a drug addict, If regular dose of drug is abruptly discontinued.
These are the disease which are easily transmitted from one person to the other. These are caused by pathogens.
These are the diseases which are not transmitted from one person to the other.
These disease occur due to hereditary factors, deficiencies, habits etc.
Active Immunity When the antibodies are developed by our own cells in response to the antigens,it is called active immunity.
Example-Immunity developed by vaccination.
When antibodies developed in other vertebrates in response to deliberate injection of antigen, are injected into our body, it constitutes Passive immunity.
Example-Immunity given by tetanus antitoxin
Posted by Akash Pandey | Saturday, 27 September 2014 | 10:55:00 am