UPSC CIVIL SERVICES RESULT 2015-2016

HUMAN HEALTH AND DISEASE-GENERAL SCIENCE BIOLOGY NOTES FOR IAS


                            HUMAN HEALTH AND DISEASE
       CLASS 12-BIOLOGY-NCERT/CBSE-NOTES

               GENERAL SCIENCE NOTES FOR IAS

general science ias notes,ncert class 12 human health and disease biology


Health                                                                                                                              

Health is defined as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being.

Disease                                                                                                                            

Disease is the condition when the functioning of one or more organs or system of the body are adversely affected and characterized by various symptoms.

Pathogens                                                                                                                        

Pathogens are those organisms which cause diseases.

Vectors                                                                                                                             

Vectors are those organisms which cause diseases.

Incubation period                                                                                                          

The time period between infection and the appearance of symptoms, is called incubation period.

Immunity                                                                                                                        

Immunity refers to the overall ability of living body to fight against diseases.

Interferons                                                                                                                     

Interferons are the glycoproteins produced by our body cells in response to a viral infection.

Antigens                                                                                                                           

Antigens are large and complex foreign molecules that activate the specific immune system to generate antibodies.

Antibodies                                                                                                                        

Antibodies are the protein molecules produced in response to antigens.

Vaccination                                                                                                                    

Vaccination is the process of introducing a preparation of antigenic proteins of pathogens or killed or inactivated/attenuated pathogens into the body, to generate the immune response/antibody.

Allergy                                                                                                                              

Allergy refers to the exaggerated/hypersensitive response of the immune system to certain antigens in the environment.

Cancer                                                                                                                              
Cancer refers to the uncontrolled proliferation of cells, that result from the breakdown of regulatory mechanisms which govern the normal cell behavior.

Metastasis                                                                                                                       
 Metastasis is the phenomenon in which cancer cells spread to different sites through the body fluids and develop secondary tumours.

Retroviruses                                                                                                                       
Retroviruses are those viruses which have RNA as the genetic material but can synthesise DNA  on RNA-template by reverse transcription.

Drug Abuse                                                                                                                   
When a drug are taken for a purpose other than their normal clinical use and in amounts/concentration or frequency that impair one’s physical,physiological and physiological functions,it constitutes drug abuse.

Adolescence                                                                                                                    
Adolescence refers to the period and process of rapid growth and physical and mental development (attitudes and beliefs)from childhood to adulthood.

Addiction                                                                                                                          
Addiction refers to the physical and Physiological attachment/dependence to certain effects of drugs/alcohol.

Syndrome                                                                                                                        
Syndrome refers to a group of symptoms.

Withdrawal syndrome                                                                                                  
Withdrawal syndrome refers to the characteristics unpleasant symptoms manifested by the body of a drug addict, If regular dose of drug is abruptly discontinued.

Infectious Disease                                                                                                           
These are the disease which are easily transmitted from one person to the other. These are caused by pathogens.
Example-AIDS,Hepatitis-B
HUMAN HEALTH AND DISEASE-GENERAL SCIENCE NOTES FOR IAS,Infectious Disease,NONInfectious Disease


Non-Infectious Disease                                                                                                 
These are the diseases which are not transmitted from one person to the other.
These disease occur due to hereditary factors, deficiencies, habits etc.
EXAMPLE-cancer.

Active Immunity                                                                                                           When the antibodies are developed by our own cells in response to the antigens,it is called active immunity.

  • It takes time to develop immunity.
  • It stays for long time.
Example-Immunity developed by vaccination.

Passive Immunity                                                                                                        
When antibodies developed in other vertebrates in response to deliberate injection of antigen, are injected into our body, it constitutes Passive immunity.

  • It is used when the immune response has to be faster.
  • It stays for short time.
Example-Immunity given by tetanus antitoxin



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