Pre-Independence  (before 1947)

Post 1757 , when East India Company started to rule, they created CCS(Covenanted Civil Services) whose members signed covenants with company's board of directors.

There was great corruption in British Bengal because of the political patronage. In 1773, British parliament enacted the 'Regulating Act' in India which established the post of Governor General.

The India Act, 1784 established the principles of governance in India. Lord Cornwallis(1786-93) splitted the bureaucracy into two parts :- political branch responsible for civil governance and commercial branch for commercial activities.

In 1800, Lord Wellesley setup the Fort William College in Madras in 1800 to induct new entrants into CCS.

After 1886, It was called as Imperial Civil Service and its members were appointed under section XXXII of Government Of India Act, 1858.
In 1914 5 % were Indians and In 1942, there were 597 Indians and 588 British.

Macaulay Committee gave India its first modern civil service in 1854 which recommended that the patronage based system of the East India Company should be replaced by permanent civil service based on merit based system through competitive entry examinations.[4]

The Report made it clear that only the best and the brightest would do for the Indian Civil Service (ICS).

Aitchison Commission was setup in 1886 under the chairmanship of Sir Charles Umpherston Aitchison so that Indians can get employment in public service.It gave some recommendations :-

  • Max age of entry = 23 yrs old
  • 3 tier classification :-  Imperial, Provincial and Subordinate civil Services.
  • Abolishment of Statuary Civil Services.
  • Certain seats in Imperial to be filled from Provincial.
The statuary Civil Service was abolished in 1892.

Islington Commission was established in 1912 which was Royal Commission on Public Services in India.It gave following recommendations in 1915 :-

  • Services under Govt of India to be classified into Class1 and Class 2.
  • 25 % of superior posts to be filled by Indians.
  • Probationary period of 2 yrs for direct recruits.
  • Recruitment to superior posts should be made partly in India and partly in England.
The Montagu-Chelmsford Report accepted in principle the demand for Indianisation of the higher civil services and accordingly a provision for this was made in the Government of India Act, 1919[6]

From 1922 Onwards, ICS exam began to be held in India.

The Royal Commission of the Superior Civil Service in India under the Chairmanship of Lord Lee, in its 1924 Report, recommended setting up of Public Service Commission of India. The Public Service Commission of India was set up on 1st October, 1926 under the Chairmanship of Sir Ross Barker.

The All India and class 1 central services were designated as Central Superior Services as early as  1924.

By 1934 , Administration in India consisted of seven All India Services and five central departments, all under the control of Secretary of State for India, and 3 central departments under joint Provincial and Imperial Control.

The Government of India Act, 1935 provided for the establishment of a Public Service Commission for each Province                                                                                                                         

          Post Independence (After 1947)

Indian political leaders chose to retain some elements of the british structure of a Unified Administrative System such as open entry system based on academic achievements, training,permanent tenure, important post at union, state and district level for civil service etc.[5]

The civil services can be categorised into :-

1. All India Services : Whose members serve both the union and state governments
2. Central Civil Services : serve only the union government.
3. State Civil Services : state government.

Article 312 of constitution empowers Parliament to create the All India Services on the fulfillment of certain conditions.

Section 3 of AIS Act,1951 and the rules and regulations made by the government prescribe the selection process for the IAS. Similar provisions exist for IPS and IFoS.[7]

Objectives behind AIS

  • Preserving national unity and integrity and uniform standards of Administration.
  • Neutrality and Objectivity - non political,secular and non-sectarian outlook.
  • Competence, efficiency and professionalism - at entry by attracting the best and brightest and throughout the career.
  • Integrity and Idealism.
The first administrative reforms Commission was setup in January, 1966 . It submitted 20 reports covering many aspects such as State,financial,personnel administration, machinery of GOI etc containing 537 major recommendations.

A report indicating the implementation position was placed in parliament in Nov 1977.
A gist of the recommendations are as follows :-

  • Need for specialization :- A method of selection for senior management posts was laid down.
  • Unified grading structure :- A structure based on qualifications and nature of duties and responsibilities was suggested.
  • Recruitment : A single competitive exam for the Class 1 service with age limit raised to 26 yrs;discontinuation of direct recruitment to Class 2 services etc
  • Recruitment agencies : A new procedure for appointment of members of the UPSC and State PSC was suggested; selection of recruitment board for selection of clerical staff was recommended.
  • Training : A national policy on civil service training to be designed.
  • Promotions : Detailed guidelines for promotions were outlined.
  • Conduct and Discipline : Reforms in disciplinary enquiry proceedings and setting up of Civil Service Tribunals was suggested.
  • Service Conditions: Th e Commission also gave recommendations on matters related to overtime allowances, voluntary retirement, exit mechanism, quantum of pension, government holidays, incentives and awards to be given on timely completion of projects, and establishing work norms for various posts that maybe reviewed by the Staff Inspection Unit.
Various Commissions have been set up from time to time to make recommendations for Recruitment:-

Report on Public Administration by A.D. Gorwala, 1951: no scope for patronage.

Report on the Public Services (Qualifications for Recruitment) Committee, 1956 – also known as Dr. A. Ramaswami Mudaliar Committee Report: compulsary university degree for higher services, age limit 21-23.

Report on Indian and State Administrative Services and Problems of District Administration by V.T. Krishnamachari, 1962: Recruitment to class 1 and 2 should be made annualy.

ARC’s Report on Personnel Administration,1969: Single competitive exam , age limit 26, rectt boards for class 3 and 4 employees.

Report of the Committee on Recruitment Policy and Selection Methods, 1976 – also known as the D.S. Kothari Committee Report: Two stage examination process - preliminary and mains, changes in training pattern.

Report of the Committee to Review the Scheme of the Civil Services Examination, 1989 – also known as the Satish Chandra Committee Report
Report of the Civil Services Examination Review Committee, 2001, also known as Professor Yoginder K. AlaghCommittee Report: testing the candidates in a common subject rather than optional ones.

Report of the Committee on Civil Service Reforms also known as the Hota Committee Report, 2004 : age 21-24, 5 yrs concession for SC/ST and 3 yrs for OBC, aptitude test may be introduced, probationers may be given 1 month time after starting of training to choose service.

Recommendations on Training :-

  • 1951 A.D Gorwala Report : There must be an induction, trainings at intervals, director of training.
  • 1962 V.T Krishnamachari Report : trainings for State Civil Service Officers.
  • 1969 ARC report : national policy on civil services training, central training division.
  • 2003 Yugandhar Committee : need of mid career training programmes.

ARC recommended 8 areas of specialization :- Economic, Industrial, Agriculture and Rural Development, Social and Educational, Personnel, Financial, Internal Security and Defence, Planning.

 The selection to these areas should be made through mid career competitive examination . All Class 1 officers with 8-12 yrs exp would be eligible.[8]

Appleby report (1953): suggested the establishment of Organization & methods machinery and Institute of public administration . Both these recomm were implemented by government.

Accountability :-
  • Vigilance division in every Department.
  • Article 311 for conducting disciplinary proceedings against civil servants.
  • After completing 25 or 50 yrs , servant may be retired. Its in rule 56(j) of the Fundamental rules.
  • ARC recommended the establishment of lokpal at centre and lokayukta in states to deal with complaints.

Implementation of Recommendations

Many of the recommendations involving basic changes have not been acted upon and therefore, the framework, systems and methods of functioning of the civil services based on the Whitehall model of the mid-nineteenth century remains largely unchanged.                                                                                    

        Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy 
                     of  Administration                                                              

On April 15, 1958 the then Home Minister announced in the Lok Sabha a proposal to set up a National Academy of Administration, where training would be given to all the recruits of the Civil Services. The Ministry of Home Affairs decided to amalgamate the IAS Training School, Delhi and the IAS Staff College, Shimla to form a National Academy of Administration at Mussoorie. 

The Academy was set up in 1959 and was called the 'National Academy of Administration'. 

Its status was that of an 'attached office' of the Government of India under the Ministry of Home Affairs. 

In October 1972, its name was changed to "Lal Bahadur Shastri Academy of Administration" and in July 1973, the word "National" was added and the Academy is now known as the “Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration". 

The prestigious "Charleville Hotel" built around 1870, provided the location and initial infrastructure for the Academy. There have been subsequent expansions and several new buildings have been constructed and others acquired over the years.

The Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration imparts training to members of the Indian Civil Services in a common Foundation Course for the All India Services and the Central Service Group-A; and professional training to regular recruits of the Indian Administrative Service (IAS). 

The Academy also conducts in service training courses for middle to senior level members of the IAS and induction level training for officers promoted to the IAS from the state civil services. It offers a range of specialized inputs for a diverse clientele.  Individuals, Non-Government Organizations, the corporate sector, and Governments both within India and abroad are offered customized courses, which cater to their research and training requirements.                                                                                
The first director of the academy was A.N. Jha.

Facilities at Academy

Academy has all basic facilities e.g. equipped lecture rooms, conference halls, auditorium, library, mess, hostel, sports complex, dispensary, bank, post office, EPABX, computer lab, Internet, SVGA projectors to handle computer screens and VCR output, Slide and overhead projectors and Video recording of classroom sessions.

The academy dispensary provides medical services, manned by a Senior Medical Officer, a Lady Medical Officer, nursing and technical staff. Academy has a pathology lab, an X-ray unit and a free homeopathic dispensary etc.

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