UPSC CIVIL SERVICES RESULT 2015-2016

Endocrine Glands-Function,secreted Hormone and their location in body

        Introduction-ENDOCRINE GLANDS


Glands
Collection of cells or tissue that removes specific substances from the blood, alters or concentrates them, and then either releases them for further use by the body or eliminates them.

Hormones
Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work slowly, over time, and affect many different processes, including

  • Growth and development
  • Metabolism - how your body gets energy from the foods you eat
  • Sexual function
  • Reproduction
  • Mood
Endocrine Glands and secreted hormones


Endocrine glands- Endocrine glands, are special groups of cells, make hormones & release their products into surrounding tissue and diffuses into blood or lymph capillaries.

These are ductless glands.
The endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the blood stream, rather than through a duct. That is the reason these glands are also known as ductless glands.

The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, thymus, thyroid, adrenal glands, and pancreas. In addition, men produce hormones in their testes and women produce them in their ovaries.

Functions of the Endocrine System
1. Regulates the rate of Metabolism
2. influences the maturation of tissues
3. Regulates blood composition
4. Water balance
5. Regulates the Immune System
6. Regulates heart rate and blood pressure
7. Controls blood glucose
8. Controls reproductive functions
9. Regulates uterine contractions and milk release                                   
Endocrine glands and their secreted hormones
GLANDHORMONECHEMICAL CLASSACTIONSREGULATED BY
Hypothalamushormones released from the
posterior pituitary and the hormone that regulate the anterior pituitary
          -     -         -
Pituitary glandOxytocin



Antidiuretic hormone(ADH)




Growth hormone (GH)



Prolactin (PRL)


Follicle-Stimulating Hormone(FSH)

Luteinizing hormone(LH)
peptide




Peptide



Protein



Protein


Glycoprotein


Glycoprotein
stimulates uterus contraction of and mammary gland cells

Promotes retention of water by kidneys



stimulates growth(especially bones) and metabolic function


stimulates milk production and secretion

stimulates ovaries and testes

stimulates thyroid gland

nervous system


water salt
 balance



Hypothalamic hormones



hypothalamic hormones

hypothalamic hormones

thyroxine in blood;hypothalamic
hormones
Thyroid glandTriiodothyronine(T3) Thyroxine(T4)


Calcitonin
Amine



Peptide
stimulates and maintain metabolic process


lowers blood calcium level
TSH


calcium in blood
Parathyroid glandsParathyroid hormone(PTH)Peptideraises blood calcium levelcalcium in blood
PancreasInsulin


Glucagon
protein


protein
lowers blood glucose level

raises blood glucose level
glucose in blood


glucose in blood
Adrenal glands

Adrenal medulla


Adrenal cortex



Epinephrine and norepinephrine


glucocorticoids

mineralocorticoids



Amine



steroid

STEROID


raise blood glucose level;increases metabolic activities;constrict certain blood vessels



raise blood glucose level

promotes reabsorption of NA+(sodium ions) and excretion of K+(potassium) in kidneys


Nervous system



ACTH


K+ in blood
Gonads

Testes


OVARIES





androgens


Estrogens



Progesterone


steroid


steroid



steroid

support sperm formation;promote development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics

stimulate uterine lining growth:promote development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics



promotes uterine lining growth





FSH and LH



FSH and LH




FSH and LH
Pineal glandMelatoninAmineinvolved in biological rhythmslight/dark cycles

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