crop production and management
Production, proper management and distribution of food is essential to feed the ever growing population.

From food we get energy which is utilized to carry out various biological body functions such as reproduction, digestion, excretion, respiration etc

Agricultural practices
Agricultural practices started since the time of Nomadic age

Crop-When the plant of same kind are grown and cultivated at one place on large scale it’s called crop.
Crops are of different types like cereals, vegetable and fruits.

Types of crops
Crops are grouped on the basis of the season in which they grow.

Two major cropping patterns India.

Kharif crops
  • Crops which are sown in the rainy season are called Kharif crops.
  • Rainy season in India is in between –June to September
  • Examples of kharif crops-Cotton, groundnut, paddy, soyabean, maize etc.

Rabi Crops
  • The crops grown in the winter season are called rabi crops.
  • Time Period of Rabi crops- October to March
  • Examples of Rabi crops-Lineseed, gram, mustard, pea and wheat.

Crops of summer season-Many vegetables and pulses crops are grown in India during the summer season.

Basic practices of crop production.

Agricultural practices-Various activities done by the farmer from tilling of the land to the storage of crops are called agricultural practices.

Various steps required in crop production

  1. Preparation of Soil
  2. Sowing
  3. Adding manure and fertilizers
  4. Irrigation
  5. Protecting from weeds
  6. Harvesting
  7. Storage.

    1.Preparation of soil-First step of crop production.

    • Digging of the land, turning of soil and loosening of soil done in this step.
    • This allows the root to penetrate deep into the soil, nutrients are easily absorbed by the plants because turning and loosening of soils brings nutrient rich soil to the top.
    • Loosened soils helps in the growth of microbes and earthworm and this enrich humus content of soil.

    Tilling or Ploughing
    • The process of loosening and turning soil is called tilling and ploughing.
    • Ploughing is done by the Plough(made up of wood or iron).

    • Big pieces of soil formed during Ploughing is called crumbs . 
    • It is necessary to break it to get better yield.

    • Lever is  used to level soil for sowing irrigation purposes.

    Agriculture Implements(Tools)

    Farmers breaks soil to get better yield with various tools such as Plough,Hoe and cultivator.

    • Plough is used for tilling the soil, adding fertilizers to the crop, removing weeds, scraping of soil etc
    • Plough is made up of wood and is drawn by a pairs of bulls or other animals (horses, camel, cow etc)

    • Hoe is a simple tool which is used for removing weeds and for loosening the soil .
    • Hoe is pulled by animals.

    • Now days Ploughing is done by tractor driven cultivator.
    • Cultivator saves time and labour.

    • Sowing is the most important part of crop production.
    • Before sowing good quality seeds are selected.

    Selection of seeds

    Method for separating good, healthy seeds from the damaged ones.
    Put seeds in water if seeds float these are damaged seeds. Damaged seeds become hollow and are thus lighter therefore seeds float on water.
    Traditional tool for sowing seeds

    Tools used for sowing seeds

    Traditional tool for sowing seeds
    • Shaped like funnel, seeds are filled into funnel and other sharp end pierce into the soil and place seeds there.

    Seed drill

    A seed drill

    • Now days sowing of seeds is done with the help of tractors.
    • Sows the seeds uniformly
    • Sowing by seed drill Ensured seeds get covered after sowing.
    • Sowing done by seed drill saves time and labour.

    3.Adding manure and fertilizers 

    Substance which are added to the soil in the form of nutrients for the healthy growth of plants are called manure and fertilisers.

    • Manure is an organic substance obtained from the decomposition of the plant or animals wastes. 
    • The decomposed matter is used as organic manure.
    • Manure is a natural substance obtained by the decomposition of cattle dung, human waste and plant residues.
    • Manure can be prepared in the field.
    • Manure provides a lot of humus to the soil.
    • Manure is relatively less rich in plant nutrients.

    Advantages of Manure

    HOW manure is better than fertilisers…?

    • Manures enhances the water holding capacity of the soil
    • Manures improves the texture of the soil.
    • Manures makes the soil porous due to which exchange of gases becomes easy.
    • Manure increases the number of friendly microbes

    • Fertilisers are chemical substances which are rich in particular nutrient.
    • Fertilizers is an inorganic salt.
    • A fertilizer is prepared in factories.
    • A fertilizers does not provide any humus to the soil.
    • Fertilisers are very rich in plant nutrients like nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium.
    • Excessive use of fertilisers has made the soil less fertile.
    • Fertilisers has become the source of water pollution .
    • Examples of fertilisers- Urea,ammonium sulphate,super phosphate ,potash,NPK(Nitrogen,Phosphorus,Potassium).

    • The supply of water to crops at different interval is called irrigation.
    • The time and frequency of irrigation varies from crop to crop,soil to soil and season to season
    • Water is important for proper growth and development of flowers,fruits and seeds of plants.
    • Plants contain nearly 90 % of water.
    • Water is necessary for plants because germination of seeds does not takes place under dry conditions.
    • Plant absorbed nutrients from soil through water.
    • Moat
    • Water protects the crop from both frost and hot air currents.

     Sources of irrigation
    • The sources of irrigation are –wells,tubewells,ponds,lakes,rivers,dams and canals.

    Traditional methods of irrigation
    • Cattle or human labour is used in Traditional method.
    • Chain pump
    • This methods are cheaper but less efficient.

    The various traditional methods of irrigations are  
    1.  Moat(Pully-system)
    2. Chain pump
    3. Dhekli
    4. Rahat(lever system)

    Modern Methods of Irrigation
    • Modern methods of irrigation help us to use water economically.
    The main modern methods of irrigation are following

    Sprinkler System
    Sprinkler system
    • Sprinkler system has perpendicular pipes having rotating nozzles on top,water escapes from the rotating nozzles.
    • It sprinkled on the crop as if it is raining.
    • Sprinkler system is useful on the uneven land where sufficient water is not available.

    Drip system
    Drip system
    • In Drip system ,the water falls drop by drop just at the position of the roots. So it is called drip system.
    • In drip method is not wasted .
    • Drip system is best method for watering fruit plants, gardens and trees.
    • Drip system is blessing where there is shortage of water.

    5.Protection from weeds

    Weeds are undesirable or unwanted plants that may grow naturally along with the crop.

    • The removal of weeds is called weeding .
    • Weeding is necessary because weeds compete with the crops for water, nutrients, space and light .
    • Weeds may be poisonous for animals and human beings and interfere in harvesting.

    Ways to remove weeds

    Tilling - Tilling before sowing of crops helps in uprooting and killing of weeds.

    Physical removal-uprooting or cutting them close to the ground from time to time.

    Weedicides- Weedicides are chemicals used to control weeds. 
    • They do not damage  the crops.
    • Spraying of weedicides may affect health of farmers.


    • The cutting of crops after it is mature is called harvesting.
    • In India it is done either manually by sickle or by machine by harvester.

    • The process of separation of the grain seeds from harvested crops.
    •  It  is done with Harvester.

    Winnowing-Small farmers separates the grain from chaff by winnowing.

    • To protect crop grains for longer time ,they should be safe from moistures,insects,rats and microorganisms.
    • The fresh crops has more moisture they may quickly spoilt or attacked by organisms.
    • Hence before storing crop grains they are properly dried in sun to reduce moisture in them.
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