UPSC CIVIL SERVICES RESULT 2015-2016

Vitamins-Major Dietary Source,major functions in the body,symptoms of deficiency or extreme excess

        VITAMIN REQUIREMENTS OF HUMAN


                    Water soluble vitamins 

  


Vitamin
Major Dietary
 Source
Some major functions 
in the body
Possible symptoms of deficiency or extreme excess
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
Pork, legumes, peanuts, whole grains
Coenzyme used in removing co2 from organic compounds.
Beriberi (nerve disorders, emaciation, anemia)
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
Dairy products,meats,enriched grains,vegetable
Components of coenzyme FAD+ AND FMN
Skin lesions such
 as cracks at corner
of mouth
Niacin
Nuts,meats,grains
Components of coenzymes NAD+ and NADP+
Skin and
gastrointestinal lesions,nervous disorder liver damage.
Vitamin B6(Pyridoxine)
Meats,vegetable,whole grains
Coenzyme used in amino acid metabolism
Irritability,
convulsions,
muscular twitching,anemia unstable gait,numb feet,poor coordination.
Pantothenic acid
Most food:meats,dairy,
products,whole grains etc
Components of coenzyme A
Fatigue,numbness,
tingling of hands and feet
Folicacid(Folacin)
Green vegetables,oranges,nuts,
legumes,whole grains
Coenzyme in nucleic acid and amino acid metabolism
Anemia,
gastrointestinal problems may mask deficiency of vitamin B12
Vitamin B12
Meats,eggs,dairy products
Coenzyme in nucleic acid metabolism ;maturation of red blood cells 
Anemia,nervous
 system disorders
Biotin 
Legumes,other vegetables,meats
Coenzyme in synthesis of fat, glycogen and amino acids
Scaly skin inflammation neuromuscular
 disorders
Vitamin C(Ascorbic acid)
Fruits and vegetables
,especially citrus fruits,broccoli,cabbage
,tomatoes,green peppers.
Used in collagen synthesis
(such as for bone
cartilage,
gums);
antioxidants ;aids in
detoxificatio
-n
improves iron absorption

Scurvy(degeneration of skin,teeth,blood vessels),weakness,
delayed wound healing,impaired immunity Gastrointestinal upset.
  
               
                     Fat soluble Vitamins

Vitamin
Major Dietary Source
Some major
 functions in the body
Possible symptoms
 of deficiency or extreme excess
Vitamin A (retinol)
Provitamin A(beta-carotene)in deep green and orange vegetables fruits;retinol in dairy products
Components of visual pigments;maintenance of epithelial tissues;antioxidants;helps prevent damage to cell membranes
Vision problems;dry;
scaling skin,headache,
irritability
vomiting,hair loss,blurred vision,liver and bone damage.
Vitamin D
Dairy products,egg yolk(also made in human skin in presence of sunlight)
Aids in absorption and use of calcium and phosphorus;Promotes bone growth
Rickets(bone deformities)in children,bone softening in adults brain,
cardiovascular and kidney damage.
Vitamin E(Tocopherol)
Vegetable oils ,nuts,seeds
Antioxidant;helps prevent damage to cell membranes
None well documented in humans;possibly anemia
                                     Vitamin K (phylloquinone)
Green vegetables,tea(also made by colon bacteria)
Important in blood clotting
Defective Blood clotting,Liver Damage and anemia.

                                                                               


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