EBOLA-Types of Ebola virus,Causes,Transmission,Signs and Symptoms,Diagnosis,Vaccine and treatment for Ebola Virus

                                   EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE

Download pdf-Ebola Q &ANS BY WHO

                What Is the Ebola Virus?

  • Ebola virus is a type of RNA virus that causes the disease known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (also known as Ebola).
  • Ebola is a rare but deadly virus that causes bleeding inside and outside the body.
  • EVD outbreaks have a case fatality rate of up to 90%.
  • The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission.
  • Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are considered to be the natural host of the Ebola virus.
                        Cause of Ebola

Ebola is caused by an infection with the Ebola virus.

       Where Did Ebola Virus Get Its Name?

Ebola first appeared in 1976 in 2 simultaneous outbreaks, in Nzara, Sudan, and in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Ebola virus got its name from a river in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire), in Africa, where it was first recognized.

           There are five types of Ebola species

1.Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV; previously ZEBOV) -ZEBOV has the highest case-fatality rate of the ebolaviruses, up 90%. Average case fatality rate of approximately 83% over 27 years

2.Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BDBV)

3.Reston ebolavirus (RESTV)

4.Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV)

5.Taï Forest ebolavirus (TAFV).

Ebola transmission,how Ebola spread


How Ebola virus is transmitted ?

Transmission of Ebola: Exposure to Infected Body Fluids
Ebola is introduced into the human population through close
contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected
Transmission of Ebola: Direct Contact With an Infected Person

Ebola then spreads in the community through human-to-human transmission, with infection resulting from direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes) with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected people, and indirect contact with environments contaminated with such fluids. Burial ceremonies in which mourners have direct contact with the
body of the deceased person can also play a role in the transmission of Ebola. 

Men who have recovered from the disease can still transmit the virus through their semen for up to 7 weeks after recovery from illness.

Ebola spreads through Objects or medical tools
People can also be exposed toEbola virus through contact with objects, such as needles, that have been contaminated with infected secretions.

Signs and Symptoms of Ebola Virus Disease

Some patients may experienceSome patients may experience:
 Fever A Rash
HeadacheRed Eyes
Joint and muscle achesHiccups
 DiarrheaSore throat
VomitingChest pain
Stomach painDifficulty breathing
Lack of appetiteDifficulty swallowing
-Bleeding inside and outside of the body

Ebola symptoms

Symptoms may appear anywhere from 2 to 21 days after exposure to ebolavirus though 8-10 days is most common.

                       Diagnosis OF Ebola 

Ebola virus infections can be diagnosed definitively in a laboratory through several types of tests:
  • Antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
  • Antigen detection test
  • Serum neutralization test
  • Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay
  • Electron microscopy
  • Virus isolation by cell culture.

     Vaccine and treatment FOR Ebola Virus

The prevention of Ebola HF presents many challenges. Because it is still unknown how exactly people are infected with  Ebola HF, there are few established primary prevention measures.

No licensed vaccine for EVD is available. Several vaccines are being tested, but none are available for clinical use.

Severely ill patients require intensive supportive care. Patients are frequently dehydrated and require oral rehydration with solutions containing electrolytes or intravenous fluids.

No specific treatment is available for Ebola. New drug therapies are
being evaluated for Ebola virus.


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