MAINS SYLLABUS FOR CIVIL SERVICES EXAM – 2014
GEOGRAPHY-MAINS OPTIONAL SUBJECT SYLLABUS-2014
PAPER - I
PRINCIPLES OF GEOGRAPHY
1. Geomorphology: Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crust; Fundamentals of geomagnetism;Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines;Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics;Recent views on mountain building;Vulcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis;Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development ; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology;Erosion surfaces; Slope development ;Applied Geomorphology : Geohydrology,economic geology and environment.
2. Climatology: Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation; atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronto genesis,Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s, Thornthwaite’s and Trewartha’s classification of world climates;Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change and role and response of man in climatic changes, Applied climatology and Urban climate.
3. Oceanography: Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans;Temperature and salinity of the oceans;Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits;Waves, currents and tides; Marine resources: biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs, coral bleaching;sea-level changes; law of the sea and marine pollution.
4. Biogeography: Genesis of soils;Classification and distribution of soils;Soil profile; Soil erosion, Degradation and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals;Problems of deforestation and conservation Conservation measures; Social forestry; agroforestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.
5. Environmental Geography: Principle of ecology; Human ecological adaptations;Influence of man on ecology and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation;Environmental degradation, management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental policy;Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and legislation.
1. Perspectives in Human Geography:Areal differentiation; regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism;Environmentalism; Quantitative revolutionand locational analysis; radical, behavioural, human and welfare
approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development index.
2. Economic Geography: World economic development: measurement and problems; World resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture: typology of agricultural regions; agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutrition problems;Food security; famine: causes effects and remedies; World industries:locational patterns and problems; patterns of world trade.
3. Population and Settlement Geography: Growth and distribution of world population; demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration;concepts of over-under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital.Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements;Urban morphology: Concepts of primate city and rank-size rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural - urban fringe; Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization;Sustainable development of cities.
4. Regional Planning: Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation; Growth centres and growth poles; Regional imbalances;regional development strategies; environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.
5. Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography: Systems analysis in Human geography; Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models; Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch;Perroux and Boudeville; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location;Weber’s model of industrial location; Ostov’s model of stages of growth.Heartland and Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.
PAPER – II
GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA
1. Physical Setting: Space relationship of India with neighboring countries;Structure and relief; Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns, Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and droughts; Climatic regions; Natural vegetation; Soiltypes and their distributions.
2. Resources: Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources; Forest and wild life resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.
3. Agriculture: Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Institutional factors: land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; Agro and social-forestry; Green revolution and its socio- economic and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming;Livestock resources and white revolution; aqua - culture; sericulture, apiculture and poultry; agricultural regionalisation;agro-climatic zones; agroecological regions.
4. Industry: Evolution of industries;Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile,iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, paper,chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and agro-based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector undertakings; Industrial regionali-sation; New industrial policies; Multinationals and liberalization; Special Economic Zones; Tourism including eco -tourism.
5. Transport, Communication and Trade: Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy; Export processing zones; Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space programme.
6. Cultural Setting: Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial, linguistic and ethnic diversities; religious minorities; major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; cultural regions; Growth, distribution and density of population; Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force,dependency ratio, longevity; migration (inter-regional, intra- regional and international) and associated problems;Population problems and policies; Health indicators.
7. Settlements: Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments; Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and metropolitan regions; urban sprawl; Slums and associated problems; town planning; Problems of urbanization and remedies.
8. Regional Development and Planning: Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development programmes;Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning;Command area development;Watershed management; Planning for backward area, desert, drought prone,hill, tribal area development; multi-level planning; Regional planning and development of island territories.
9. Political Aspects: Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganisation; Emergence of new states; Regional consciousness and inter state issues;international boundary of India and related issues; Cross border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.
10. Contemporary Issues: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides,earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues relating to environmental pollution; Changes in patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development; Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and Indian economy.
NOTE: Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper.