EUROPEAN EXPANSION-PORTUGUESE IN INDIA(SEA ROUTES
PORTUGUESE SETTLEMENTS IN INDIA,PORTUGUESE GOVERNORS
IN INDIA,CAUSES OF FAILURE OF PORTUGUESE IN INDIA
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East Relationship with Europe in ancient time
SEA ROUTES BETWEEN EUROPE AND EAST ASIA
Middle Ages trade routes between Europe and south east Asia
what are the different trade routes between India(East) and Europe
First route –By sea along Persian gulf and from there overland through Iraq and turkey and then again by sea to Venice and Genoa.
India-Persia-Iraq-Turkey-venice and Genoa.
Second route-Via Red Sea and then overland to Alexandria in Egypt and fom there by sea to Venice and Genoa.
Third route-Less frequented overland route through the passes of the North West Asia and Russia to Baltic
Asian Trade is carried -Mostly by Arab merchants and sailor.
Mediterranean and European Trade was Virtual mono poly of Italians.
Discovery of sea routes to India
Why Europeans wants to discover new routes to India ?
European-Asian trade became the monopoly of merchants of Venice and Genoa of Italian city and they refused to let the new nation states of western Europe particularly Spain and Portugal have any share in the trade through these old routes.
The other nations of Europe had no ports on the shore of the Mediterranean were thus shut out from the participation in the lucrative trade with the east.
Voyages for the discovery of sea routes to India
Prince Henry of Portugal –Encourage voyages for the discovery of sea route to India
1488-Bartholomew Diaz-Reached Cape of good Hope
1497-Vasco-de-Gama-With three Ships followed route of Diaz and reached Calicut in 1498.
Potuguse Settlements in India
They encountered much opposition from the Arab merchants and in retaliations behaved towards them with revolting cruelty.
FAMOUS GOVERNORS OF Portuguese in India
Francisco De Almeida
Second and greatest of the Portuguese governor was Alfanso-de-Albuquerque who succeeded De Almeida in 1509.
Thus during his 6 years of governorship he firmly established the Portuguese on the main land in India and made the Portuguese flag supreme on the Indian Ocean.
CAUSES OF PORTUGUESE FAILURE IN INDIA
What are the causes of Failure of Portuguese in India ?
Throughout the sixteenth century the Portuguese were masters of the Eastern seas and had the absolute control of the Indian sea-borne foreign trade.In India their chief settlements were Goa, Daman, Diu and Cochin. They had also occupied Ceylon, the Island of Socotra near the entrance of the Red Sea, Ormuz in the Persian Gulf and Malacca in the Far East. In the poet's words it may be said that Portugal held "the gorgeous. East in fee."
But the power of the Portuguese declined as quickly as it had risen. This was due so many reasons.
(i) No strong person was sent to India after the death of Albuquerque. The result was that the Portuguese Empire began to disintegrate.
(ii) The Portuguese administration was corrupt. The salaries of the officials were low and consequently they felt no hesitation in accepting bribes from any quarter. They were all bent upon making fortunes for themselves, unmindful of the means used.
(iii) The religious policy of the Portuguese was also responsible for their ruin. The Portuguese introduced Inquisition into India and they committed atrocities on those who were not Christians. Their coercive methods created bitterness in the minds of the people.
(iv) The establishment of the Mughal Empire was also partly responsible for Portuguese failure. At the beginning of the sixteenth century. the Portuguese did not meet any great opposition. However, after the accession of Akbar in 1556, the Mughal power began to grow. Under these circumstances. there was no scope for the growth of the Portuguese power on the mainland of India.
(v) Portugal being a small count,, its resources were not sufficient for the conquest of a count, like India. Furthemiore the resources were divided between India and Brazil.
(vi) In 1580, Portugal came under Spanish rule. The result was that Spanish interest predominated. Various restrictions were put on Portuguese entreprise in the interest of Spain.
(vii) The rise of the Dutch and English power in India created strong rivals in the country. They were more than a match for the Portuguese.
(viii) The Portuguese who came to India were characterised by great individual courage, enthusiasm for conquest, personal and national pride but many of them were cruel, factious and domineering. Their early success encouraged their inborn arrogance. No wonder, they came to regard the Asiatics in general as their natural subjects.