UPSC CIVIL SERVICES RESULT 2015-2016

MINERAL REQUIREMENTS OF HUMANS

                              MINERALS


What are minerals ?

Minerals are inorganic substances or chemical elements that forms one of the important nutrient groups needed by human body for proper growth and development of the body.

On the basis of requirement of minerals by human body Minerals are classified into two groups Major mineral(or Macro-minerals) and Trace minerals
(micro-minerals)

What is difference between Microminerals and macrominerals ?


Major minerals or Macro-minerals are minerals which human body needs in large quantity

There are mainly seven Macro-minerals these are calcium, phosphorus, sulfur, potassium, chloride,sodium, , and magnesium.


Trace minerals or micro-minerals are minerals which human body needs in small quantity.

There are ten trace minerals and these are are:iron, fluorine, zinc, copper, manganese, iodine, cobalt, selenium, chromium, and molybdenum.


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Important points for minerals



About Macrominerals

  • Calcium is the body’s most abundant mineral in human body and makes up approximately 2% of a person’s total body weight in bones and teeth.
  • Phosphorus is the body’s second most abundant mineral
  • Potassium is the third most abundant mineral in the body
  • Sulfur is the fourth most abundant body mineral.
  • Sodium and chloride are the fifth most abundant minerals in the body
  • Magnesium is the sixth most abundant mineral in the body and last of the major minerals.
About micro-minerals

  • Iron is the most abundant trace mineral, in human body
  • Zinc is the second most abundant trace mineral,in human body.

List of Minerals needed in our food for 

proper growth and development of the body


Minerals
Major dietary 
sources of
Minerals
Major functions 
of minerals 
in the body
symptoms of
 deficiency 
Calcium(ca)
Dairy products,dark
green vegetables,
legumes
Bone and
 tooth formation,
blood clotting
nerve and 
muscles function
Retarded growth,
possibly loss
of bone mass
Phosphorus(P)
Dairy products,
meats,grains
Bone and tooth formation 
acid-base balance,nucleotide synthesis
Weakness,loss of 
minerals from
bone

,calcium loss
Sulfur(S)
Proteins
from many sources
Components of certain amino acids
Symptoms of 
protein deficiency 
Potassium(K)
Meats,dairy products,many fruits and vegetable ,grains
Acid-base balance,
water balance,
nerve function
Muscular weakness,
paralysis,
nausea,heart failure
Chlorine(Cl)
Table salt
Acid base balance,
formation
of gastric juices,
nerve function,
osmotic balance
Muscle cramps,reduced appetite
Sodium(Na)
Table salt
Acid-base balance,
water balance,
nerve function
Muscle cramps,reduced appetite
Magnesium(Mg)
Whole grains,green leafy vegetables
Co-factor,ATP bioenergetics
Nervous 
system disturbances
Iron(Fe)
Meats,eggs,legumes,
whole grains,green leafy vegetables
Components of
 hemoglobin
and of electron carriers 
in energy
 metabolism;
enzyme cofactor
Iron-deficiency anemia,weakness
,impaired immunity
Fluorine(F)
Drinking water,tea,seafood
Maintenance of
 tooth (and probably bone)
structure
High
frequencyof tooth decay
Zinc(Zn)
Meats,seafoods,grains
Components of certain digestive enzymes and other proteins
Growth failure,
scalyskin
inflammation,
reproductive failure 
impared
immunity
Copper(Cu)
Seafood,nuts,legumes,
organ meats
Enzyme cofactor in iron metabolism,melanin synthesis,electron transport
Anemia,bone and cardiovascular changes
Maganese (Mn)
Nuts,grains,
vegetables,
fruits,tea
Enzyme co-factor
Abnormal bone and cartilage
Iodine(I)
Seafood,dairy products ,iodized salt
Components of thyroid hormones
Goiter(enlarged thyroid)
Cobalt(Co)
Meats and 
dairy products 
Components of vitamin B12
None ,except
asB12 deficiency
Selenium(Se)
Seafood,meats,whole grains
Enzyme co-factor;
antioxidant functioning
 in close
association
with vitamin E


Muscle pain,possibly heart 
muscle deterioration
Chromium(Cr)
Brewer’s yeast,liver,seafood,
meats,some vegetables
Involved in 
glucose and energy metabolism
Impaired glucose metabolism
Molybdenum(Mo)
Legumes,grains,some vegetables
Enzyme cofactor
Disorder 
in excretion of nitrogen containing compounds



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