UPSC CIVIL SERVICES RESULT 2015-2016

MAJOR DOMAINS OF THE EARTH (NCERT GEOGRAPHY NOTES FOR IAS)




              Major Domains of the Earth







Major domains of the earth. I know many of you first want to know what is the meaning of Domain, what are the major domains of the earth ?How many domains earth have ?... etc 

I will not take your too much of time so let’s begin






Meaning of Domain-Domain simply means any territory,region or sphere.


What are the major Domains of the earth ?

Earth has four major domains .Each domain of the earth has it’s own characteristics ,property, features etc.


Four major domains or regions of the earth

Earth has four major domains

Lithosphere,Atmosphere,Hydrosphere and Biosphere .


These four domains of the earth interact, meet and overlap with each other and make life possible on earth .


                          Lithosphere


                                     WHAT IS LITHOSPHERE ?
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The rigid or hard portion of the earth on which live is called Lithosphere.
Lithosphere consist of Earth’s crust, rocks, thin layer of soil and topmost layer of the mantle .
There are two types of Lithosphere continental lithosphere and oceanic lithosphere.


  • Continental Lithosphere consists of continental crust.
  • Oceanic Lithosphere-consist of oceanic crust and associated with ocean Basin.

Why always elevation or height of the land, mountain is measured from Sea Level ?

All the oceans of the earth are connected with each other because of these the level of sea water is same everywhere and Sea level is taken as zero that’s the reason for measuring the height of mountain, land from sea level .


Continents
continents of the world



WHAT ARE CONTINENTS...?

  • Continents are the large landmasses separated by large water bodies.
  • These continents are made up of countries, and are surrounded by oceans.
  • There are Seven major continents. 
  • On the basis of size Asia is largest continent and Australia is the smallest continent.
List of continent’s from Largest to smallest in size


REMEMBER KEY POINTS


Major domains -Lithosphere,
Atmosphere, Hydrosphere and Biosphere 

Continents-large land masses separated by large water bodies.

There are Seven major continents

List of continent’s -from
Largest to smallest in size 
Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia

Asia-lies in Eastern Hemisphere,continent - both by area and by population.

Eurasia-The combined landmass of Europe and Asia 

Africa- has Hottest desert sahara desert  and longest rivers Nile.

North America-linked to South America by Isthmus of Panama,world's tallest mountain (Mount Kea).

South America-The world’s longest mountain range The Andes and largest river Amazon lies in South America.

Antarctica-only continent
completely covered in ice.

Europe-third most populous continent
after Asia and Africa

Australia-is called an Island continent

Hydrosphere-The combined mass of water in all it’s forms 

Oceans-Four major oceans according to size from largest to smallest -Pacific ocean ,The Atlantic Ocean,The Indian
ocean ,The arctic ocean

Mariana Trench-Deepest part on the earth

Atmosphere-Thin layer of gas ,from earth's surface

  • Troposphere,
  • The Stratosphere,
  • The Mesosphere, 
  • The thermosphere and 
  • The Exosphere.
Biosphere -Zone of Life
Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia.


Asia

  • Asia is the world's largest continent - both by area and by population.
  •  Asia is the only continent joined to two others
  • Asia covers one-third of the total area of the earth.
  • Asia lies in Eastern Hemisphere.
  • Latitude tropic of cancer passes through Asian continent.
  • On the west Europe is separated from Asia by Ural mountains.
Eurasia-The combined landmass of  Europe and Asia is called                  Eurasia(Europe+Asia).

Europe

  • Second most smallest continent by surface area
  • Europe is the third most populous continent after Asia and
    Africa
  • Europe is the wealthiest continent in the world.
  • Latitude-Arctic circle passes through European continent.
  • Europe is surrounded by water bodies on three sides.

Africa

  • Africa, the 2nd largest and 2nd most populous continent in the world
  • Africa was formerly known as Ifriqiya or sunny place.
  • Three latitudes passes through African continent the Tropicof cancer ,the Equator passes through the middle of the continent, and the Tropic of Capricorn.
  • African continent is surrounded by water bodies on all sides.
  • The world largest hot desert The Sahara Desert is in Africa.
  • The world’s longest river the Nile flows through Africa.


North America

  • North America is the third-largest continent
  • North America is linked to South America by Isthmus of Panama.
  • North America lies in Northern and western Hemisphere.
  • North American continent
    is surrounded by three oceans.
  • Contains the world's tallest mountain (Mount Kea).

South America

  • South America is the world's fourth largest continent on Earth,
  • South America lies mostly in Southern Hemisphere.
  • The world’s longest mountain range The Andes lies located in South America.
  • The world’s largest river ,the Amazon lies in South America.

Australia
  • Australia is the smallest continent and lies in southern
    hemisphere.
  • Australia is surrounded on all sides by oceans and sea
  •  Australia is called an Island continent

Antarctica
  • Antarctica is in southern hemisphere.
  • Antarctica is the only continent completely covered in ice.
  • Many countries have research stations in Antarctica as there
    is no permanent human settlement in Antarctica .
Some  Indian research stations in Antarctica  are Maitri and Dakshin Gangotri.



                      Hydrosphere


The combined mass of water in all it’s forms  that is ice, water and water vapour found on ,over and under the surface is called Hydrosphere.

  • Waters in oceans, lakes and rivers, underground water, ice
    in glaciers and the vapour in atmosphere comprises hydrosphere.
  • More than 71 percent of the earth is covered with water and
    29 percent with land Because of this earth is also called the Blue planet.
  • 97 percent of the earth’s water is found in oceans is not
    suitable for use because it is too salty. Less than 1 percent is available as
    fresh water.
                                         Oceans



MAJOR OCEANS OF THE EARTH


There  are four major oceans of the earth on the basis of size these are 


  1. Pacific ocean (almost circular in shape),
  2. The Atlantic Ocean(it is S shaped),
  3. The Indian ocean (Almost triangular in shape)and 
  4. The arctic ocean.
  • Mariana Trench ,the deepest part of earth lies in the
    pacific ocean.
  • The Indian ocean is the only ocean named after a country.

                          Atmosphere




Different layers of earth

Atmosphere is thin layer of gas which surround the earth and protect us from harmful rays of the sun and provide us air we breathe.

  • Atmosphere extend up to a height of about 1,600 Kilometer.
The atmosphere has five layers based on the different temperature, composition, and other properties.


                 What are the different layers of the earth ?


There are five major layers of the earth


The five layers of the earth starting from the surface of the earth are 


  1. Troposphere, 
  2. The Stratosphere,
  3. The Mesosphere,
  4. The thermosphere and
  5. The Exosphere.

The atmosphere consist 78 percent Nitrogen, 21 percent oxygen and other gases like argon, carbon dioxide and other gases comprises 1 percent by volume.

The density of the atmosphere is maximum at the sea level and decreases with increasing height.



                             Biosphere



biosphere


what is Biosphere ?


Biosphere is narrow zone of life on earth where land, water and air interact and meet with each other. 

Who gave the term Biosphere-The term "biosphere" was coined by geologist  Eduard Suess in 1875.


All the domains of the earth interact with each other and affect each other in some way and other way.

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