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In these topic you will get insight of Castes and Social reformers in the 18th -20th century .How social reformers help in uplifting the lower caste. This topic is taken from class 8th history book Our pasts-3 part 2 chapter 9(Nine) Women, Caste and reform.

This is very important topic for civil services exam (IAS/IPS ) prelims as well as mains.

Several social reformers criticised caste inequalities.

Raja ram mohan Roy-Translated old Buddhist text that was critical of caste.

Prarthana Samaj-Adhered to the tradition of Bhakti that believed in spiritual equality of all.

Paramhans Mandali-Founded in Mumbai 1840 work for the abolition of caste
Many of reformer were people of upper caste.

Christian Missionaries-Began setting up school for tribal groups and lower caste children.

Poor began to move to cities and other places to get away from the oppressive hold that upper caste landowners exercise over their lives and daily humiliation they suffered.
Demands for equality and Justice
The Satnami Movement,Ghasidas ,ncert class 8.ias,ips,ifs upsc
1.In the second half of the 19th century lower castes began organizing movement against discrimination and demanded social equality and justice.

2.The Satnami Movement-Founded by Ghasidas in central India.Ghasidas come from lower cast, worked among the leather  worker and organised a movement to improve their social status.

3.Haridas Thakur Mautua sect worked among low caste chandala cultivators.Haridas questioned Brahmanical text that supported the caste system

Shri Narayana Guru
Shri Narayana Guru
4.Shri Narayana Guru-From a Ezhavas csste proclaimed the ideas of unity of all people within one sect , a single caste and one guru.

Jyotirao Phule-Born in 1827
  • He attack the Brahman’s claim that they were superior to other since they were Aryans.
  • Phule Argued that the Aryan were foreigners and defeated and subjugated the true children of the country .
  • According to Phule ,the upper castes had no right to their land and power in reality the lamd belonged to indigenous people the so called low caste.
  • Jyotirao Phule proposed that Shudras and Ati shudras should unite to challenge caste discrimination.
  • The Satyashodhak Samaj-An association Phule propagated caste equality.
  • Jyotirao Phule,social reformer,satyashodhak samaj
    Jyotirao Phule
  • In 1873 Phule wrote a book Gulamgir meaning Slavery dedicated this book to those American who had fought to free slaves.This establishing link between the condition of lower caste in India and the Black slave in America.

Ambedkar,father of indian constitution
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
  • He was born in Mahar family
  • In 1927 started temple entry movement in which his Mahar caste followers participate .
  • He led three such movement for Temple entry between 1927-1935
  • Ambedkar’s aim was to make everyone see the power of caste prejudices within society.

The Non-Brahaman Movement

  • In early 20th century The Non Brahaman movement started by those non Brahman castes that hadacquired access to education on wealth and influence.
  • They argued that Brahmans were not true sons of the land .
  • They challengd Brahmanical claims to power .

E.V Ramaswamy Naicker or Periyar
E.V Ramaswamy Naicker or Periyar,self respect movement
E.V Ramaswamy Naicker
or Periyar
  • Periyar come from middle class family.
  • Periyar was an outspoken critic of Hindu scriptures,especially the codes of manu,the ancient law giver,and the BhagavadGita and The Ramayana.
  • Periyar said that the texts had been used to establish the authority of Brahmans over lower castes and the domination of men over women.
  • Periyar founded Self Respect movement .
  • periyar argued that untouchables were true upholders of an original Tamil and Dravidians culture which had been subjugated by Brahmans.

All these sects were founded by leaders who came from low castes and worked amongst them.They tried to change those habits and practices among low castes which provoked  upper castes contempt.They tried to create a sense of self esteem amongst the lower caste.

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1 comment:

  1. Thank you for providing clear information on this. you can also refer TET Success Key for more NCERT notes


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